Frequently Asked Questions about Vitess

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    Does the application need to know about the sharding scheme underneath Vitess?

    The application does not need to know about how the data is sharded. This information is stored in a VSchema which the VTGates use to automatically route your queries. This allows the application to connect to vitess and use it as if it’s a single giant database server.

    Can I address a specific shard if I want to?

    If necessary, you can access a specific shard by connecting to it using the shard specific database name. For a keyspace ks and shard -80, you would connect to ks:-80.

    How do I choose between master vs. replica for queries?

    You can qualify the keyspace name with the desired tablet type using the @ suffix. This can be specified as part of the connection as the database name, or can be changed on the fly through the USE command.

    For example, ks@master will select ks as the default keyspace with all queries being sent to the master. Consequently ks@replica will load balance requests across all REPLICA tablet types, and ks@rdonly will choose RDONLY.

    You can also specify the database name as @master, etc, which instructs Vitess that no default keyspace was specified, but that the requests are for the specified tablet type.

    If no tablet type was specified, then VTGate chooses its default, which can be overridden with the -default_tablet_type command line argument.

    There seems to be a 10,000 row limit per query. What if I want to do a full table scan?

    Vitess supports different modes. In OLTP mode, the result size is typically limited to a preset number (10,000 rows by default). This limit can be adjusted based on your needs.

    However, OLAP mode has no limit to the number of rows returned. In order to change to this mode, you may issue the following command before executing your query:

    set workload='olap'

    You can also set the workload to dba mode, which allows you to override the implicit timeouts that exist in vttablet. However, this mode should be used judiciously as it supersedes shutdown and reparent commands.

    The general convention is to send OLTP queries to REPLICA tablet types, and OLAP queries to RDONLY.

    Is there a list of supported/unsupported queries?

    The list of unsupported constructs is currently in the form of test cases contained in this test file. However, contrary to the test cases, there is limited support for SET, DDL and DBA constructs. This will be documented in greater detail soon. Until then, this test file serves as the canonical source of information on unsupported queries. Do also check on the Vitess Slack channel (click here to join) to ask our friendly community about other queries you have in mind.

    If I have a log of all queries from my app. Is there a way I can try them against vitess to see how they’ll work?

    Yes. The vtexplain tool can be used to preview how your queries will be executed by vitess. It can also be used to try different sharding scenarios before deciding on one.

    Does the Primary Vindex for a tablet have to be the same as its Primary Key.

    It is not necessary that a Primary Vindex be the same as the Primary Key. In fact, there are many use cases where you would not want this. For example, if there are tables with one-to-many relationships, the Primary Vindex of the main table is likely to be the same as the Primary Key. However, if you want the rows of the secondary table to reside in the same shard as the parent row, the Primary Vindex for that table must be the foreign key that points to the main table. A typical example is a user and order table. In this case, the order table has the user_id as a foreign key to the id of the user table. The order_id may be the primary key for order, but you may still want to choose user_id as Primary Vindex, which will make a user’s orders live in the same shard as the user.

    How do I connect to vtgate using mysql protocol?

    If you look at the example vtgate-up.sh script, you’ll see the following lines:

    -mysql_server_port $mysql_server_port \
    -mysql_server_socket_path $mysql_server_socket_path \
    -mysql_auth_server_static_file "./mysql_auth_server_static_creds.json" \

    In that example, vtgate accepts mysql connections on port 15306, and the authentication info is stored in the json file. So, you should be able to connect to it using the following command:

    mysql -h -P 15306 -u mysql_user --password=mysql_password

    Can I override the default db name from vt_xxx to my own?

    Yes. You can start vttablet with the -init_db_name_override command line option to specify a different db name. There is no downside to performing this override.

    I cannot start a cluster, and see these errors in the logs: Could not open required defaults file: /path/to/my.cnf

    Most likely this means that apparmor is running on your server and is preventing vitess processes from accessing the my.cnf file. The workaround is to uninstall apparmor:

    sudo service apparmor stop
    sudo service apparmor teardown
    sudo update-rc.d -f apparmor remove

    You may also need to reboot the machine after this. Many programs automatically install apparmor, so you may need to uninstall again.