Schema Routing Rules

The Vitess routing rules feature is a powerful mechanism for directing traffic to the right keyspaces, shards or tablet types. It fulfils the following use cases:

  • Routing traffic during resharding: During resharding, you can specify rules that decide where to send reads and writes. For example, you can move traffic from the source shard to the destination shards, but only for the rdonly or replica types. This gives you the option to try out the new shards and make sure they will work as intended before committing to move the rest of the traffic.
  • Table equivalence: The new VReplication feature allows you to materialize tables in different keyspaces. In this situation, you can specify that two tables are ‘equivalent’. This will allow VTGate to use the best possible plan depending on the input query.

ApplyRoutingRules #

You can use the vtctlclient command to apply routing rules:

ApplyRoutingRules {-rules=<rules> || -rules_file=<rules_file=<sql file>} [-cells=c1,c2,...] [-skip_rebuild] [-dry-run]

Syntax #

Resharding #

Routing rules can be specified using JSON format. Here’s an example:

{"rules": [
    "from_table": "t@rdonly",
    "to_tables": ["target.t"]
  }, {
    "from_table": "target.t",
    "to_tables": ["source.t"]
  }, {
    "from_table": "t",
    "to_tables": ["source.t"]

The above JSON specifies the following rules:

  • If you sent a query accessing t for an rdonly instance, then it would be sent to table t in the target keyspace.
  • If you sent a query accessing target.t for anything other than rdonly, it would be sent t in the source keyspace.
  • If you sent a query accessing t without any qualification, it would be sent to t in the source keyspace.

These rules are an example of how they can be used to shift traffic for a table during a vertical resharding process. In this case, the assumption is that we are moving t from source to target, and so far, we’ve shifted traffic for just the rdonly tablet types.

By updating these rules, you can eventually move all traffic to target.t

The rules are applied only once. The resulting targets need to specify fully qualified table names.

Table equivalence #

The routing rules allow you to specify table equivalence. Here’s an example:

{"rules": [
    "from_table": "product",
    "to_tables": ["lookup.product", "user.uproduct"]

In the above case, we are declaring that the product table is present in both lookup and user. If a query is issued using the unqualified product table, then VTGate will consider sending the query to both lookup.product as well as user.uproduct (note the name change).

For example, if user was a sharded keyspace, and the query joined a user table with product, then vtgate will know that it’s better to send the query to the user keyspace instead of lookup.

Typically, table equivalence makes sense when a view table is materialized from a source table using VReplication.

Orthogonality #

The tablet type targeting and table equivalence features are orthogonal to each other and can be combined. Although there’s no immediate use case for this, it’s a possibility we can consider if the use case arises.