Compare the source and target in a workflow to ensure integrity

Description #

VDiff does a row by row comparison of all tables associated with the workflow, diffing the source keyspace and the target keyspace and reporting counts of missing/extra/unmatched rows.

It is highly recommended that you do this before you finalize a workflow with SwitchTraffic and complete.

VDiff supports diffing tables without a defined Primary Key (PK) and it will use a Primary Key equivalent (PKE: index on non-NULL unique column(s)) if one exists. However, be aware of the additional overhead and time required to do the comparison in these cases, particularly if there is no PK or PKE as diffing the table will then require a full table scan to read every row and a filesort to sort all of them before the diff can start (and this will have to be done every time it's restarted/resumed). If the table is of any significant size then it's strongly recommended that you define a PK for the table.

Command #

VDiff takes different sub-commands or actions similar to how the MoveTables/Reshard commands work. Please see the command's reference docs for additional info. The following sub-commands or actions are supported:

Start a New VDiff #

The create action schedules a VDiff to run on the primary tablet of each target shard to verify the subset of data that will live on the given shard. If you do not pass a specific UUID then one will be generated.

Each scheduled VDiff has an associated UUID which is returned by the create action. You can use it to monitor progress. Example:

$ vtctldclient --server=localhost:15999 VDiff --target-keyspace customer --workflow commerce2customer create
VDiff a35b0006-e6d9-416e-bea9-917795dc5bf3 scheduled on target shards, use show to view progress

Resume a Previous VDiff #

The resume action allows you to resume a previously completed VDiff, picking up where it left off and comparing the records where the Primary Key column(s) are greater than the last record processed β€” with the progress and other status information saved when the run ends. This allows you to do approximate rolling or differential VDiffs (e.g. done after MoveTables finishes the initial copy phase and then again just before SwitchTraffic).


$ vtctldclient --server=localhost:15999 VDiff --target-keyspace customer --workflow commerce2customer resume 4c664dc2-eba9-11ec-9ef7-920702940ee0
VDiff 4c664dc2-eba9-11ec-9ef7-920702940ee0 resumed on target shards, use show to view progress
We cannot guarantee accurate results for resume when different collations are used for a table between the source and target keyspaces (more details can be seen here).

Show Progress/Status of a VDiff #

Using the show action you can either show a specific UUID or use the last convenience shorthand to look at the most recently created VDiff. Example:

$ vtctldclient --server=localhost:15999 VDiff --target-keyspace customer --workflow commerce2customer show last

VDiff Summary for customer.commerce2customer (4c664dc2-eba9-11ec-9ef7-920702940ee0)
State:        completed
RowsCompared: 196
HasMismatch:  false
StartedAt:    2022-06-26 22:44:29
CompletedAt:  2022-06-26 22:44:31

Use "--format=json" for more detailed output.

$ vtctldclient --server=localhost:15999 VDiff --format=json --target-keyspace customer --workflow commerce2customer show last
	"Workflow": "commerce2customer",
	"Keyspace": "customer",
	"State": "completed",
	"UUID": "4c664dc2-eba9-11ec-9ef7-920702940ee0",
	"RowsCompared": 196,
	"HasMismatch": false,
	"Shards": "0",
	"StartedAt": "2022-06-26 22:44:29",
	"CompletedAt": "2022-06-26 22:44:31"

$ vtctldclient --server=localhost:15999 VDiff --format=json --target-keyspace customer --workflow p1c2 show daf1f03a-03ed-11ed-9ab8-920702940ee0
	"Workflow": "p1c2",
	"Keyspace": "customer",
	"State": "started",
	"UUID": "daf1f03a-03ed-11ed-9ab8-920702940ee0",
	"RowsCompared": 51,
	"HasMismatch": false,
	"Shards": "-80,80-",
	"StartedAt": "2022-07-15 03:26:03",
	"Progress": {
		"Percentage": 48.57,
		"ETA": "2022-07-15 03:26:10"

show all lists all VDiffs created for the specified keyspace and workflow.

It is too expensive to get exact real-time row counts for tables, using e.g. SELECT COUNT(*). So we instead use the statistics available in the information_schema to approximate the number of rows in each table when initializing a VDiff on the target primary tablet(s). This data is then used in the progress report and it can be significantly off (up to 50-60+%) depending on the utilization of the underlying MySQL server resources and the age of the tables. You can specify the create --update-table-stats flag so that VDiff will run ANALYZE TABLE to update the statistics for the tables involved on the target primary tablet(s) before executing the VDiff in order to improve the accuracy of the progress report.

Stopping a VDiff #

The stop action allows you to stop a running VDiff for any reason β€” for example, the load on the system(s) may be too high at the moment and you want to postpone the work until off hours. You can then later use the resume action to start the VDiff again from where it left off. Example:

$ vtctldclient --server=localhost:15999 VDiff --format=json --target-keyspace customer --workflow commerce2customer stop ad9bd40e-0c92-11ed-b568-920702940ee0
	"UUID": "ad9bd40e-0c92-11ed-b568-920702940ee0",
	"Action": "stop",
	"Status": "completed"
Attempting to stop a VDiff that is already completed is a no-op.

Delete VDiff Results #

You use the delete action to either delete a specific UUID or use the all shorthand to delete all VDiffs created for the specified keyspace and workflow. Example:

$ vtctldclient --server=localhost:15999 VDiff --target-keyspace customer --workflow commerce2customer delete all
VDiff delete completed

$ vtctldclient --server=localhost:15999 VDiff --format=json --target-keyspace customer --workflow commerce2customer delete all
	"Action": "delete",
	"Status": "completed"

Deletes are idempotent, so attempting to delete VDiff data that does not exist is a no-op.

All VDiff data associated with a VReplication workflow is deleted when the workflow is deleted.